If You See This Symbol On A Baby's Crib, Here Is Why You Do Not Ask The Parents About It

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Purple butterflies are new stickers on cribs in the hospital nursery. If you have never seen one, it is because they are just now becoming a thing. They were created by Milli Smith who was an ordinary pregnant mother awaiting the birth of her twins, until she got the bad news. However, instead of dwelling on the bad, she found a way to cope with the purple butterfly.

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Milli Smith and Lewis Cann were told that one of her twins would not live long. The unborn baby was diagnosed with anencephaly. This news was devastating because there is no cure for this. The brokenhearted mother had to continue her pregnancy knowing only one baby was healthy enough to survive. The joy of impending motherhood was smothered by grief.

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Skye and Callie were born, but Skye only lived a mere three hours. They let both babies share a crib in the nursery for a brief time. These brief moments were precious for Milli and Lewis because they could see their girls together. The babies were tiny and precious.

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Although they had one daughter left, they were still grieving. Another mother of twins was feeling a bit overwhelmed and mentioned that they were lucky that they didn’t have twins. Milli Smith knew that the other mother didn’t know of her loss, After she had been dismissed, she thought of a way to help other parents not experience such thoughtless words.

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Chicago Teenager Tragically Found Dead In Walk-In Freezer At Rosemont Hotel

Being locked in a refrigerator would be unpleasant, to say the least. What initially starts off as a cold, uncomfortable feeling would slowly become worse and worse as the air in the fridge leaked out, causing you a slow, painful death via suffocation. Not what anyone wants, ever. We've seen this terrifying concept explored in more than a few TV shows and movies.

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Death from refrigeration would be even worse for cold babies like me who can't stand being in frigid environments for that long. Especially if I'm wearing a t-shirt, cold will just cut right through me. So I could well see myself fainting from the cold (is that a thing) long before I'd succumb to the lack of air.

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It turns out, refrigerator based deaths were such an issue among children in the United States that they had to pass the Refrigerator Safety Act in 1956. This codified new safety standards to be taken into account during the construction of refrigerators for home and commercial use.

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Most deaths resulted from children playing in abandoned refrigerators and becoming trapped within, instead of when the fridge is one and in use. The government initially asked people to remove the doors of unused refrigerators to prevent accidental deaths, and in the mid '50s roving troops of public service workers were sent out to dismantle and abandoned refrigerators' doors.

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The safety act reformed the way in which refrigerator doors are made to stay shut. That's why most refrigerator doors you see today use magnets to secure themselves in place, as opposed to the more classic latch. The law saw significant results in the years after it was passed, as the number of refrigerator-attributed deaths severely declined.

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Dad Writes Hilariously Clever Letter To Son From The Tooth Fairy Withholding Payment Until He Learns To Regularly Brush His Teeth

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The tooth fairy is such an interesting concept. She (or he) is a playful little sprite of sorts that has some value in children's teeth. According to the tale, whenever a child loses a tooth, he or she can place it under his or her pillow before bedtime. Sometime in the night, the tooth fairy will wander into his or her room through some crazy magic and replace the child's tooth with some kind of gift.

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It's a strange concept, to be sure, but I rather like the mythology. Stories and folk legends like these about some kind of mystical being that travels around offering gifts and such have always amused me. So where does the notion of the tooth fairy come from? It's a strange tradition, so it must have some strange origin.

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Like many other iconic fantasy figures, the legend of the tooth fairy carries over from Europe; northern Europe, specifically. Norse mythology and other stories from that region point to a tradition of children being paid for every tooth they lost. Out of all the body parts, teeth are some of the most discussed, be it in various stories or superstitions.

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During the Middle Ages, especially, wild teeth tales circulated around the Norsemen and the English. In England, children were encouraged to burn their baby teeth in order to prevent them from having to sustain some kind of hardship in the afterlife. Sounds scary, and a bit paranoid, if you ask me. Apparently children who didn't give their teeth to the fire would spend their entire afterlife searching for their missing chompers.

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The Vikings, however, were more into a bartering system. Children't teeth and other various possessions belonging to kids hold high esteem in Scandinavian culture. Many Norse warriors hung teeth around their necks on a string. Not the prettiest piece of jewelry, but probably pretty effective at intimidating your opponents.

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The general fear of witches that took place in much of Europe around this time also played into the teeth mythos. It was believed, in medieval Europe, that witches could completely control an individual if she possessed one of his or her teeth. Kids, then, were encouraged to burn their teeth. That can't have smelled good.

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The actual story of the tooth fairy and some of the specifics with which we associate her today came into play more in the twentieth century. Many people think that stories of the tooth fairy only go back as far as 1977, 1962 or 1927, depending on what source you're using. The earliest mention of our dear fairy, however, came in a 1908 edition of the ​Chicago Daily Tribune, ​in the paper's "Household Hints" column.

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Here's what the Tribune has to say: "Many a refractory childMany a refractory child will allow a loose tooth to be removed if he knows about the tooth fairy. If he takes his little tooth and puts it under the pillow when he goes to bed the tooth fairy will come in the night and take it away, and in its place will leave some little gift.

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"It is a nice plan for mothers to visit the 5 cent counter and lay in a supply of articles to be used on such occasions," the paragraph continued. It's funny; what started out as a reader submission to a newspaper has turned into one of the most popular folk tales in the world. Crazy the things you can get out of burning or worshipping teeth.

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Here's something interesting: 75% of children liked the custom of the tooth fairy upon finding out that she doesn't exist. On the other hand, 20% considered themselves neutral to the fairy and 3% were not in favor of the legend and would not do it with their kids as parents.

Regardless of what you think of the tooth fairy, you have to at least that it's a little bit of a cute custom. It's so funny to see younger kids get really excited to put their teeth under their pillows at night. I myself used to love the idea of the tooth fairy, and a lot of parents manage to go above and beyond what's expected and make the tooth fairy as fond an experience as they can.

Twitter via @henrywarren

One particularly prodigious parent named Henry Warren decided to have some fun with one of his three kids when it came time for him to lose his first tooth. He wrote an ingenious letter to the tooth fairy about his son Sam, in which he said he is "dreadful at brushing his teeth". The letter is a complaint, issued by the tooth fairy to Warren!

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Here's what it says: "Dear Mr. Warren, This letter is to inform you that I have taken receipt of your tooth and it is being duly processed in our system. You will have noticed there has been a delay in your payment for the tooth. Mr. Warren, I have to inform you that this is due to the condition in which we found said tooth.

Little Hiccups

​"We expect a certain amount of wear and tear on the teeth we appraise," the letter continued. "However in this case your tooth had to be referred up to the committee for further analysis. We believe this is due to the lack of care and attention by yourself." What a funny concept: a roast on a child, written by the tooth fairy.

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It doesn't stop there, though: "We have detected more than trace amounts of Fanta™ and residual amounts of both cereal and chocolate which have not been removed by appropriate brushing technique. We recommend you review your practice here as a matter of urgency." Honestly, this is a pretty smart idea. Good parenting, too.

Tooth Troop

"Mr Warren we will accept the tooth on this occasion but we need your assurances that the condition of your next tooth will be significantly better or we will withhold payment. Sincerely yours, Barry T. Tooth Fairy." The London father then placed the note under his son's pillow in exchange for the milk tooth he had placed there.

Words, Words, Words

Warren's son didn't receive the customary one pound coin until a few days later. The letter became extremely popular on Twitter, and people have been applauding Mr. Warren for his creative parenting skills. One Twitter user wrote 'This is genious. Well played, Barry, well played. LOL" and another said "A+ Parenting. Not only is it funny for those outside but it should give your kid an incentive to brush his teeth."

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The tweet currently sits at more than 18,000 likes and more than 6,500 retweets, with plenty of passionate and supportive comments to boot. The Tweet had this caption: "Our son is dreadful at brushing his teeth. Turns out the Tooth Fairy has had enough."

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Warren didn't respond to any future question, but Barry, the TF himself, was ready to provide some answers. Apparently, Sam was embarrassed by the note, same with his 5-year-old sister who he read the letter to. According to Barry, the letter was sent out "as a matter of protocol". "The tooth was substandard, what would you have done?" Barry asked.

Boredom Therapy

According to our number one tooth fairy, Sam was more than happy to get his money after the short delay. His exact words were "he took the money and ran. Hopefully to buy floss." Oh, that tooth fairy. Always the little jokester. Still, this is a good lesson wrapped up in an entertaining package. You don't often get to see something so interesting have an attached educational benefit.

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In his email, Barry wrote "Look, I'm getting painted as a petty bureaucrat for writing this note. I'll admit it might have been a bit strongly worded, but you have to understand the conditions we tooth fairies have to work in. It would give anyone a headache." I can only imagine you could spend so much time with teeth in a given lifetime before you'd be sick of them entirely.

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Other Twitter users sounded off with some of their cool tooth fairy parenting tricks. "Absolutely genius!" wrote one user. "My strategy was to help them look for all their chocolate that I accidentally ate lasnt night. May add this my repertoire" while another user said "I used to tell my kids that if the tooth had decay they wouldn't be paid so they had to brush their teeth."

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Even if you aren't a fan of the tooth fairy story, this is pretty funny. Not many parents go out of the way to make their teachings this fun, and something tells me this lesson is going to stick with little Sam for a while. I remember my parents "calling" Santa Claus when I was a little kid if I was acting up, telling him not to deliver me any presents if I continued to behave poorly.

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Having good teeth can be the difference between immense pain and a healthy, comfortable mouth as an adult. It's not always easy to teach your kids good dental hygiene; most children hate brushing. Heck, I think everyone kind of hates brushing, other than for it making your teeth feel cleaner.

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I know if my parents had pulled a stunt like this on me- especially with a letter that official looking, with a seal on it and everything- I'd probably have the cleanest teeth in the land. Even if Sam might be fretting about his teeth for now, he should be happy to have a father like Henry.

You Won't Believe The Ridiculous Real Life Car Problems These Poor Mechanics Actually Had to Deal With

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Some people have a gift for understanding cars. But for the rest of us, car ownership is a confusing balancing act of not wanting to bring your car in and pay an extravagant fee for an easy problem, and not wanting to die in a fiery explosion for negligence.

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In such a situation, what is a struggling car owner to do? Of course you could keep on driving, ignoring the blinking light on your dash until a more knowledgeable friend lectures you on the responsibilities of car ownership. Or you could just wait until your car eventually breaks down on the freeway, stranding you until a stranger approaches to help.

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Car trouble?

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If you've ever owned a car, than chances are, at one point or another, the answer has been "yes." Maybe this guy wasn't the one asking you that question (unfortunately), but that doesn't mean you shouldn't let someone check out your vehicle anyway.

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Granted, your car problem may be a result of, *ahem* user error, but that doesn't mean you can't bring it in to be safe. Besides, chances are your mechanic has seen stupider. If you don't believe me, than check out some of these real life car problems mechanics had to deal with.

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Scientists Create Human Organ Chips to Simulate the Body

  • "Organ chips" offer tremendous potential for individualized nutrition
  • The creation of components that emulate human genomes will help scientists understand how people's bodies react differently to nutrients depending on their genes
  • Organ chips mimic the chemistry and function of human livers, lungs and intestines
  • Consumers have the potential to take control of their health by optimizing nutrients with the help of technology

Doctors have long dreamed of a day when they would be able to monitor how particular foods, chemicals and medicines affect individual patients — without ever placing anyone at risk of adverse or unintended reactions.

A new technology being tested by federal researchers aims to do just that by assembling live human cells within a custom, transparent environment designed for no-harm testing.

These so-called organ chips — small, interchangeable components that mimic the chemistry and function of human livers, lungs and intestines — appear to offer tremendous potential for the growing field of individualized nutrition.

About the size of an AA battery, the chips being developed by Boston-based Emulate Inc. consist of tiny pathways lined with human actual cells. Scientists are able to introduce materials to the system, re-create functions such as breathing, and watch up close and in real time as the chemicals interact.

The work to date has been focused on disease treatment. But the company's top scientist says the same technology also lends itself to the kind of custom, genetically varied testing that nutritionists see as crucial to crafting unique dietary regimens for individuals.

When Will They Be Ready?

It's hard to say exactly when personalized chips will be ready for use, but already the company and its partners are taking steps in that direction, Emulate's president and chief scientific officer, Geraldine Hamilton, told Nutrient Science News.

For instance, human stem cells have already been put on chips, allowing researchers to "basically program them" to become specific cells within certain organs, Hamilton said.

"We have this on chips (that) provide a home away from home for the cells," she said.

Emulate's advances have been met with inquiries from companies hoping to work with individualized aspects of human health such as the human microbiome, that biologically important mix of gut bacteria that varies from person to person.

"There is tremendous interest from multiple industry partners on research (on) nutraceuticals, as well as the use of food for therapeutic development," Hamilton said.

Emulate seized the imagination of the scientific world when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced April 11 that it had entered into a multi-year research and development agreement to evaluate the company's organ chips. The work is to be done at the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Paving the Way

Because of the chips' modular nature, the agency said, researchers can use instrumentation to watch and analyze cells in real time. These simulated organs can be linked together, in some cases, to determine how different organs exposed to various materials ultimately interact with each other.

The fact that the FDA has stepped in has been particularly encouraging to nutritionists. Though they applaud any effort to re-create a human intestine — or liver, for that matter — researchers in that field are most excited about the potential to produce a chip that reflects an individual patient's unique genetic makeup.

Hamilton was cautious about when individualized chips will be fully developed, saying "we're not putting a timeline on it yet." But she said the company definitely intends to create components that emulate patients' genomes, thereby paving the way for tests that reflect people's unique dietary systems.

When that capability comes about, she said, "it's basically testing the patient's own cells."

Such a system could greatly enhance scientists' understanding of how people's bodies react differently to nutrients depending on their genes. It could lead to refined, customized dietary recommendations that precisely reflect patients' highly complex and individual chemistries.

In terms of improving human health through nutrition, the organ chip's potential is not in the technology; ultimately it will be the technology's ability to help individuals optimize what the body needs to thrive: nutrients. The power is within the individual to use the technology to their advantage.

Malnutrition Has a New Face: Obesity

  • Malnutrition redefined in the modern age of fast food, obesity and diabetes
  • Obesity-related malnutrition is the real problem
  • The U.S. food supply is calorie rich and nutrient poor
  • Nutrient-rich diets are more effective than calorie restriction

One of mankind's most laden words — malnutrition — is being redefined in the modern age of fast food, obesity and diabetes.

For centuries the word referred mainly to a person being dangerously underweight as a result of inadequate consumption of calories or protein. Malnutrition manifested in conditions such as physical wasting. Simply put, people were deemed malnourished if they couldn't get enough to eat.

Although malnutrition, as classically defined. continues to be a significant problem in some emerging economies, the circumstances associated with malnutrition in the United States have changed dramatically during the last four decades.

According to USDA/Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, there are 4,000 calories available per person from the overall food supply. Yet American diets are out of balance with dietary recommendations. It has become clear people who eat plenty of calories — too many quite often — suffer from malnourishment if they don't get enough of the right nutrients.

"A person who overeats is just as much at risk for malnutrition as some who under eats," said Kim Shapira-Ochacher, a registered dietitian in Southern California.

Competing definitions exist, but modern science generally defines malnutrition, or malnourishment, as resulting from eating too few nutrients ("undernutrition") — or eating too much ("overnutrition"), such that overconsumption causes health problems. In either case, the body suffers from a shortage of necessary micronutrients.

Nutrient Deficiencies

Different nutrient deficiencies can lead to particular health problems. Young children with iron deficiencies can suffer reduced brain function, for example, while iodine deficiency is known to lower intelligence in pregnant women and infants. Lack of vitamin A, iron and zinc can also increase the risk of death.

It turns out being overweight, a condition affecting more than half of all U.S. adults, can have the same result as severe hunger: heightened susceptibility to disease, reduced productivity and a shortened life expectancy.

Obesity-related malnourishment is a complex problem stemming from various factors, including sedentary lifestyles and lack of availability or affordability of healthy foods. Too often, calorie-rich and nutrient-poor foods typically with high levels of fat and sugar take precedence over nutrient-rich fare.

Given skyrocketing rates of obesity, considerable research has been devoted to micronutrients' role in promoting or preventing type-2 diabetes. Findings suggest certain deficiencies can impair glucose metabolism and potentially cause resistance to insulin — just as increasing intake of certain nutrients appears to be helpful in improving these conditions.

Studies have shown obese and diabetic individuals tend to have insufficient levels of vitamin D. Multiple studies suggest vitamin D supplementation can lower the chances of developing type-2 diabetes among people at highest risk. Similarly, randomized trials have demonstrated that type-2 diabetics can gain better glycemic control through the use of vitamin D.

Identifying and Treating Malnutrition

Administration of chromium has been shown to quickly and completely resolve severe insulin resistance and hyperglycemia for people highly deficient in the nutrient. There is evidence, too, that obese people at risk of developing diabetes may benefit from the use of chromium p.

Other studies have linked thiamine, biotin and vitamin C deficiencies to greater risk or severity of type-2 diabetes.

Registered nutritionist Wendy Phillips, corporate director of clinical nutrition at Atlanta-based food service provider Morrison Healthcare, noted that more than half of all hospitalized patients are malnourished upon admission, yet most overweight or obese. In an article in Practical Gastroenterology published in 2014, she called for greater vigilance on the part of medical professionals.

"Identifying and treating malnutrition in hospitalized patients is essential to improving patient outcomes," she wrote.

Healthcare is dynamic, and so are the terms used to define conditions such as malnutrition. A large segment of the population is left behind when old definitions prevail. The new face of malnutrition in the U.S. more closely resembles the normal to obese person. In a fast food environment, a focus on nutrient-rich foods may be more effective in promoting good health than calorie-restriction .

Baristas don't get recognized enough for their hard work. Like anyone who works in the service industry, our coffee-makers are often subject to rude behavior and undeserved criticism from customers. As someone who's worked at both a Panera Bread and Dunkin' Donuts, I can be the first one to confirm how utterly nasty some people can be to baristas.

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There's nothing people love to complain about more than someone messing up their coffee order. If even one sugar or cream is out of place, people will be on you like a hawk in seconds. And if you got the flavoring wrong, oh boy, you better be ready to get a nice talking-to.

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Sometimes it can be nice. You get to meet a huge variety of people and engage in interesting conversation; everyone drinks coffee, so everyone's going to end up coming through at some point or another. You also usually get as much free coffee as you can drink, which is absolutely necessary when you have to wake up at 6 a.m. for a shift.

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At the same time, managers can often be hard to deal with, the work can be taxing and you're probably going to accidentally spill the sticky caramel juice on your hands at least a couple times. That's why it can be nice to get a sweet customer or a particularly hefty tip in the old jar.

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The term "barista" itself has only recently been applied to coffee-making. As chains like Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts have reached extreme levels of success in the past several years, the word barista is now used more and more frequently to describe Starbucks workers. Barista is an Italian word that, until the 1980s, was used to refer to a bartender.

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Fat is Back! We Are Smarter Because of It

  • The fat you need from birth to death
  • Not all fat is created equal
  • Omega-3s are easy with a nutrient-rich diet
  • Omega-3s are essential for brain health

Evidence continues to pour in that polyunsaturated fats play critical roles in brain health and may even reduce the risk of cognitive decline and cardiovascular disease.

One recent study linked higher intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids — termed "essential" because the body does not readily synthesize them — to having a larger fornix, the group of nerve fibers in the central brain. Subjects in the study who had a large fornix tended to do better on memory tests.

The idea that people should seek out more fat to eat may sound confusing considering popular dietary advice is to consume a low-fat diet. But in fact, the research builds on a growing understanding that not all fat is created equal; humans need essential fatty acids in their diets from infancy through late adulthood.

"There's no question about it," said Bruce Ames, a professor emeritus of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of California, Berkeley who now serves as a senior scientist at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute. "Even old people have to take them (fatty acids), because it prevents Alzheimer's and things like that."

All human cell membranes contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids known as omega-6 and omega-3. One omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fatty fish), is highly concentrated in neuron membranes.

Omega-3s: Brain Health and Disease Prevention

It has long been understood that the last trimester of pregnancy and early postnatal life are important times for accumulating DHA. But more recent studies point to a longer-lasting need: Omega-3s play important roles in adult brain health and disease prevention. These studies suggest DHA may help keep synaptic membranes flexible and that it inhibits cell death resulting from oxidation-related stress.

Unsaturated fats have double chemical bonds, making them distinct from saturated fats like those in meats and dairy, which have single bonds and are not associated with similar health benefits. Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature, where polyunsaturated fats are typically liquid.

A great deal of scientific research has linked higher consumption of omega fatty acids, omega-3 in particular, to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Research has shown that omega-3 fatty acids decrease risk of arrhythmias, which can lead to sudden death. Omega-3 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, slow growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, and lower blood pressure (slightly).

There's also evidence low concentrations of DHA may be a risk factor for some forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and that boosting DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 known as EPA, may help people with type 2 diabetes.

Decreasing Inflammation

Though omega-6s are considered "good" fats because they lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol, high amounts or very high ratios of omega-6s to omega-3s may increase inflammation in the body, which in turn may contribute to heart disease, cancer, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic health problems. The IOM dietary reference intakes recommend a ratio of omega-6s to omega-3s between 5-to-1 and 10-to-1.

Omega-6 fatty acids are abundant in the food supply, and Americans get much of their omega-6s from processed and fast foods, such as chips, cookies, margarines and French fries. Thus, a high intake of omega-6s is usually a sign of a calorie-dense, nutrient-poor diet.

Despite IOM specific omega-6 to omega-3 ratio and grams per day recommendations, experts agree that adequate amounts of essential fatty acids can be achieved if Americans focus on a nutrient-rich style of eating, one that emphasizes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, contains a moderate amount of fish, and limits processed and fast foods. Essential fatty acid supplements, like fish oil, is an option for folks who shy away from seafood and plant-based omega-3 foods.

Bottom line, fat is back. Essential fatty acids are needed from birth to death for an array of metabolic functions including nervous tissue and brain health.

Nutrients Trump Exercise

  • Ninety-eight percent of Americans are not living a "Healthy Lifestyle." Is there hope?
  • Hand-to-mouth exercise is as important as pumping iron
  • Exercise is only half of the weight loss equation
  • Nutrient-rich foods are the No. 1 factor

Only 2.7% of all adults have four healthy lifestyle characteristics, says the Mayo Clinic: being sufficiently active, eating a healthy diet, being a nonsmoker, and having a healthy body fat percentage.

There's an understandable first impulse when Americans want to make a healthy lifestyle change: Exercise like mad. But aren't they forgetting something?

Proper nutrition is just as or more important to a healthy turnaround as physical activity. Nutrients not only fuel muscle movement and support every single cell in the human body, they also maximize the benefits of all that exertion.

Research has shown that despite all the good exercise does — from boosting cardiovascular health to improving mood — physical activity by itself is not a predictor of weight loss. Science has also demonstrated how muscle performance diminishes when the body has insufficient access to nutrients.

Clearly the two work together. But a problem often arises in which a shift toward healthy living comes with an abrupt move toward vigorous exercise and no accompanying change in dietary habits.

Exercise physiologist and dietitians agree the best approach is to focus on ensuring appropriate intake of nutrients first. This can lead a personal health transition in a way that won't overwhelm the patient, and it's easily preferable to a vigorous exercise regime that is unsupported by proper nutrition.

Get the Most out of Exercise

Leslie Bonci, sports dietitian for the Kansas City Chiefs football team, said muscles require fuel to perform optimally, and patients should watch what they eat and drink — plus when and in what quantities — to get the most out of exercise.

She emphasized, too, that muscle protein synthesis happens not just during resistance training, but with adequate macronutrients — protein, carbohydrates and fat-containing foods — and most important with the right intake of essential nutrients, which power all metabolic activity.

"The hand-to-mouth exercise is as important as pumping iron, running or shooting hoops," said Bonci, a registered dietitian nutritionist.

Nutrition is also critical to losing weight — more so even than exercise.

An international study done by researchers at Loyola University Chicago tracked participants' physical activity levels using waist-mounted accelerometers. They found exercise did not correlate to weight loss.

What's more, weight gain was found to be greater among people who met guidelines for physical activity, leading researchers to suggest exercise may sometimes increase appetites and lower activity in other parts of the day.

The study's lead author, Loyola assistant professor Lara Dugas, concluded people don't pay enough attention to portion size — that the problem of weight gain is on the "intake side" of the equation.

It appears to be much more complex than just counting calories, however.

Muscle Function Depends on Nutrients

A seminal study published in 1986 by researchers at the University of Toronto's department of medicine and Toronto General Hospital shed light on muscle function's dependence on nutrients.

The team of researchers used precise jolts of electricity to stimulate human and rat muscle tissue at various frequencies, and measured for levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and other electrolytes essential in muscular contraction. . Participants were selected largely based on their varying degrees of nutrition.

The authors ultimately suggested lowering food intake — like during restrictive dieting — depresses muscle glycolytic enzyme activity, these means less glucose is available to the working muscle during contraction.. It turns out nutrition really does fuel the body.

Registered dietitian nutritionist Kelsea Cregut said poor nutrition and bad eating habits really do keep people from reaching their health goals. On the other hand, a proper diet can increase energy, aid weight loss and increase muscle synthesis, she said. Cregut advises combining a nutrient-rich diet with exercise.

"What should you be eating?" she asked rhetorically. "Focus on a variety of fruits, vegetables, proteins and whole grains." All nutrient-rich foods are the No. 1 factor in weight control and achieving fitness goals.

Superfoods Are Super Confusing

  • "Superfoods" is a marketing term with no basis in nutritional science
  • Eat too much of any food, even superfoods, and gain weight
  • Only 55% of Americans can name one food associated with the benefits they seek
  • Energy dense foods to nutrient rich foods — "It's all about the ratio"

It's no wonder marketing campaigns tout "superfoods." They're nutrient-dense and typically offer extra benefits like cancer-fighting antioxidants and oils thought to prevent Alzheimer's disease.

But nutritionists have begun to push back against the cultural phenomenon of these apparently heroic foods, deeming them a distraction at best and, at worst, an overpriced class of consumer goods that don't necessarily deliver on their advertised claims.

Superfoods — not a well-defined term to begin with — generally include plant-based foods like blueberries, kiwifruit, kale and quinoa, as well as fish such as salmon. All are nutritious, and most can be found on any medically recommended diet.

The problem is the tight focus on superfoods. Nutritionists worry consumers buy these foods, perhaps overindulge in them, and fail to eat other products that are also of high nutritional value.

"When we label these foods as 'super' and 'healthy,' people think they can eat them in unlimited quantities. But you do have to be cautious of the amount you eat, because you can gain weight from eating too much healthy food," registered dietitian Despina Hyde, with the weight management program at New York University's Langone Medical Center, told LiveScience.com.

Conflicting Information

Understandably consumers are confused, as evidenced by the results of the International Food Information Council Foundation's 12th Annual Food and Health Survey.

The March 2017 survey found 78% of 1,002 participating Americans encounter conflicting information about what to eat or avoid — and a little more than half of them are left to doubt their food choices.

And while 96% look for health benefits from the foods they take in, only 45% of them could name even one food or nutrient associated with the benefits they seek.

What's more, about three-quarters reported relying on friends and family for dietary advice — but only 29%have strong trust in the information they receive from such sources.

"As in previous years, the Food and Health Survey has shown that Americans feel overwhelmed by conflicting food and nutrition information," IFIC Foundation CEO Joseph Clayton said in a news release. "But this year, we're finding troubling signs that the information surplus is translating into faulty decisions about our diets and health."

With that shaky understanding of nutrition, superfoods are an alluring, easy solution. Unfortunately, sticking to an inflexible list of ingredients may shut out less-dazzling but also excellent foods, such as greens, nuts and bell peppers.

The Company They Keep

Adam Drewnowski, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Washington and director of the school's nutritional sciences program, sees the term itself as problematic.

"I don't like 'superfoods' because it's a kind of — it doesn't have the scientific ring it ought to have. Not every food is a fantastic medication," he told Nutrient Science News.

To him, the better approach is to maintain a healthy balance between foods that are energy-dense versus those that are nutrient-rich. "It's about the ratio," he said.

Drewnowski advises people to keep in mind food patterns when they decide what to eat. For example, blueberries tend to be paired with yogurt, just as French fries go with ketchup. He said knowing this may help keep people on the right track.

"It's not the superfoods themselves," he said. "It's the company they keep."

There are few families as notable as the Jenner clan. It seems as though every Jenner leads her own specific existence with her own drama and life events. Whether it's Kylie's cosmetics or Kendall's perfumes, each member of one of America's most entertaining families has her own story to tell, through interactions with pop culture and other aspects of the world.

Life & Style

Kendall and Kylie specifically often get left out of the Jenner familly, with the larger discussion centering around their sister, Kim, and her mother, Kris. The two have had pretty interesting lives; did you know, for instance, that Kendall once fell off a horse five times in a row. Turns out, her and her sisters love horseback riding but she didn't have great luck one day.

E! Online

Kendall and Kylie both like sweets; they can be seen chowing down on cake and plenty of other baked goods in "Keeping Up with the Kardashians". They both have vastly different taste palettes, however; Kendall hates chocolate ice cream, while Kylie can't stand the taste of chocolate cake, even though she loves chocolate.

W Magazine

​Kylie is a big fan of her sisters' work, citing Kim Kardashian and her husband Kanye West as her primary fashion inspirations. Her and Kim do tend to dress alike a lot, which is the best way I can think of to show off your sisterly love. That's a pretty good compliment, too, because the sisters tend to dress to kill for all occasions.

People

Kendall, like her sisters, started her stint in the limelight working as a model. They've worked for a number of different publications and companies over the years on various modeling campaigns​. Kendall's first gig was for Forever 21, in which she made her New York Fashion Week debut modeling Marc Jacobs in 2014.

Huffington Post

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Dogs and other pets are so good because of just how sweet and well-behaved they can be. However, it's important for any potential owner to consider how positive reinforcement can play a role in raising your pet to behave and go potty responsibly. It's not good enough to see your animal behave in a good way; you have to make sure they continue to behave that way.

iHeartDogs.com

That's what positive reinforcement is- reward-influenced behavior. When you're teaching your kid how to use the toilet, you don't just smile at them when they hop of the seat after doing things correctly. You usually give them some kind of reward or other form of verbal recognition so that they associate good feelings with using the bathroom right.

www.intelligentk9training.com

The same is true of domestic animals. If you want to teach your dog to go to the bathroom outside instead of on your floor, you give her a little treat after you bring her back inside. Training any kind of living thing isn't super easy, but there are methods of doing it that make your work less tedious.

BBC

According to Pet MD, there are plenty of ways to show appreciation for your dog in ways that both you and your pet can understand. The first thing to remember is to always greet your pup with an exceptional amount of energy. Any time you return home, you have to realize that your pet has been waiting for you for hours, depending on how long you were gone.

The Odyssey Online

Since dogs are highly social animals that directly benefit from interacting with humans, odds are they're going to want to give you a big hello. This usually involves about 5 minutes of comfortable petting or vigorous playing. Though you may have just gotten home from a long day at work, keep in mind that you'll have to greet your dog to ease the loneliness of the day.

Mashable

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Names are interesting. It's cool hearing how people came up with them for their kids, and it's important to know what name would best suit someone. I have this little theory that people with more common names are destined to act like other people that have those names; the Rachels and Brads of the world, for example, fit a specific archetype.

The Sun

Of course, I've met many different Rachels and many different Brads, but I still think it's an interesting concept. Maybe someone could write a book about that. Ooh, maybe I could write a book about that. Names are important, is the point, and that goes for several reasons. A kid is going to hear his or her name several times a day every day, so it better be something special.

Behind the Name

That's why I could never advicse someone naming their child something so normal like Matt or Ryan. I know so many Matts, so many Ryans. You would think that mothers have some idea what most other mothers are naming their babies and would try to be at least a bit creative, but no. I guess those names are popular for a reason.

Boing Boing

Some preopl end up getting really strange with the names. Just for kicks, I looked up a list of "Cool Baby Names" on a website called nameberry. There I was delighted to see a headline that says "Attitude Names for Boys". Wow, how crazy. I wonder what kind of names convey attitude.

The Odyssey Online

If your wants your son to seem edgy, it seems like your best bet would be to name him something like Lazarus or Gunner. Something that would look good on a patch in a war movie. If you're really looking to push the craziness, consider naming him Zeke, Magnus or Moses. Nothing sounds more hardcore than Moses.

Style Magazine

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Is there anything more beautiful than nature? For as long as I can remember, I've always seen amazing works of art and writing that capture the essence of nature's beauty through sights, sounds or descriptions. It's undeniable that nature exerts a large influence over minds creative and grounded alike.

Pinterest

Why, though? What could it be about the world around us that transfixes us so? In a day in age when technology is readily available and many of the conveniences we need in life are available within the comfort of our own homes, it can be easy to ask questions like this. It's important to remember your roots, however.

YouTube

Nature is always there for you. It's like the friend that you can go several months without talking to and still manage to hold an enjoyable, cordial conversation with them next time you meet. I wish it didn't have to be that way, but our interactions with nature are often limited by busy schedules or mindsets that there's nothing to see out there.

Wikipedia

That's why it's important to consume art and literature that does a good job of establishing why nature's so important in the first place. Whether it's a landscape painting or a perfect still photograph of a serene pond, there's plenty of works that give you insight into what it is that makes the natural world so important.

Nature and Landscape

​The artists who capture this exotic and often-changing world understand that nothing is constant; things happen and events transpire quickly, meaning that few things will stay the way they are forever. This is a creative mindset that few can manage to reach; capturing the perfect nature scene is as much about time as it is place.

Photography Life

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Fall is just right around the corner, and it's got me thinking about my favorite things about the autumn season. Whether it's the food, the clothes, the colors, the music, the festivities... there's just so much to enjoy! Like most people, my favorite season is indeed fall; I really just like the way it feels to walk around outside as all the leaves change colors.

Travel + Leisure

Though who can forget the sweet, sweet taste of the season's first pumpkin spice latte? Many people spend their entire year waiting for the pumpkin puree to hit store shelves, opening up the gate for plenty of different coffees and baked goods that remind one of the harvest season. Not to mention the delicious and hearty apple ciders.

Old Farmer's Almanac

Fall is really the time to start bulking up for the winter, so you don't have to worry about cutting calories like you would in the spring or summer. Have as much pumpkin bread as you darn well please. Pumpkin cream cheese? Easy buy. Same with pumpkin bagels. Oh, are those apple flavored mini powdered donuts? No question I'm having some of those.

Odyssey

​Every year I feel like we go farther down the rabbit hole of fall food. It started out with the pumpkin craze, but I feel like maple is slowly taking over as the hip fall flavor. That sweet flavor doesn't have to be confined to syrup; you can add maple to beverages, sweets and even your scented candles.

Pinterest

The scents of fall are absolutely wonderful; things have a tendency to stink up the air more in the summertime than they ever would when it's cold out, meaning you don't have to smell anything nasty when you go outside. Instead, you're greeted with the refreshing scent of nature in a state of change. There are fewer allergens, too, so those with allergies will be happy the seasons are changing.

Indiana Campus Contact

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Yearbook photos are simultaneously one of the most fun aspects of high school as well as one of the most stressful. Looking good is hard enough on a normal day, and it can be absolutely maddening when everyone's in their best clothes on picture day. Some people go the extra distance to really make their photos memorable.

Springfield School District

Whether it's dressing up in a strange costume or putting a funny saying as their senior quote, there's plenty of ways that the best class clowns can really stand out when senior year hits. Some of these yearbook photos have managed to go viral if they end up being funny enough.

YouTube

Some people bring in little props to help make their mark, while particularly creative twins might dress up similarly to highlight their sameness. As someone who used to freak out about picture day, however, I never wore any outfits that were particularly interesting or funny.

Cumberland County Schools

In reality, I was pretty terrified that my picture wouldn't look good in the yearbook. It's important; that's how a lot of my former classmates will remember me in the future. It would have been helpful if someone would have given me some good tips for how to dress well for school pictures.

Lynn Plourde

The best way to make sure a school picture turns out well is to make sure the child is helped by his or her parents. No kid in grade school is gonna be too great at matching their clothes or doing their hair; that kind of knowledge comes with age and experience. You need to have a parent around if you want a fitting outfit for picture day.

St. Theresa Academy

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Over the past few years, Chipotle has become one of the biggest names in fast food. By combining quality ingredients with short wait times and a comfortable yet sleek atmosphere, Chipotle is able to charge as much as they want for a meal and still get away with it. They deserve to, though, based on their food quality.

Business Insider

Every time I pass by a Chipotle near lunch or dinner there's always a massive line wrapping its way to the door. Working there must be horrible, honestly; you never seem to catch a break. I've talked to employees who have said they've been trapped there until midnight or even 1 a.m. on nights they had to close.

CNNMoney

The food is unbeatable, though. Whereas Taco Bell was the reigning kind for Mexican fast food during the mid 2000s, Chipotle has upped the price and upped the quality to deliver a more holistic experience. With such a focus on eating and behaving healthily these days, it's easy to see why Chipotle's such a popular choice.

Rubio's

At the core of Chipotle's strategy is a knack for quality above all else. They're ingredients are of a pretty ridiculous quality; where else can you get cilantro rice in your burrito bowl or lime chips as a side? The only issue is cost; depending on what you get, a decent meal from Chipotle could run a single person anywhere from $10 to $15.

Grub Street

While that's not terrible compared to some establishments, you still have to factor in guacamole, one of Chipotle's most-beloved items. Customers can be expected to pay upward of $2 just for a side of guac. Sure, you get a hearty amount, but $2 is as much as you would pay for one single menu item at Taco Bell.

NBC News

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Who doesn't remember watching Hocus Pocus, the 1994 family-Halloween classic, starring Bette Midler and Sarah Jessica Parker. Having a tough time remembering? Even though it was 22 years ago, we remember and will prime your memory banks a little.

Babble

The film is about the Sanderson sisters, three once-dead witches who've returned from their graves to hunt children again. Despite the terrifying premise, they were sometimes-funny and not all that evil-seeming. Sure they wanted to eat your kids, but they were fun?

Bustle

Then there's Dani Allison and she's upset her older brother won't go trick or treating with her anymore. Her and her family had just moved to Salem before the witches were freed.

Moar Powah

Her older brother Max doesn't want to but he does it for his sister. They go out on the town for Halloween trying to have as much fun as they can, even though times are now different. But what happens next?

DVDActive

Well, Max meets Allison, the local beauty and his little sister asks if Allison wants to come trick or treating with them? Embarrassed, Max rebuffs his sister's offer, only until Allison agrees to tag along. So they set out to the "Sanderson House", a place where witches once lived.

Kiss Them Goodbye

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Yunessun

Welcome to Hakone Kowakien Yunessun, a hot-springs theme park south of Tokyo. This s one of the most exotic hot-springs theme parks one could travel to for a variety of reasons.

Hakoneho

Not only does it boast its beautiful sites and sounds without any hesitation, it makes sure that when you visit these springs, you remember them. So just how does it guarantee that?

Japankuru

For one, it has these incredible slides that you can ride. What wouldn't you kids want to do here with the amazing variety of slippery slides for them to shoot down into a pool of chlorine-washed goodness? If this were their only feature, I'd say they're doing alright.

Yokota Travel

At first glance, this seems like your normal everyday theme park. It has pools, hot tubs, saunas, slides, and snack bars, just like the community centers you remember growing up. So what makes this Japanese resort stand out among the rest?

Yakota Travel

Other than fantastic designs to make the place come alive, what is it this theme park did to keep themselves ahead of the competition? What could their minds have come up with to be unique and special? Well, the actual truth of what they do will either shock or thrill you.

Yokota Travel

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Residents spotted the creepy sight of blood leaking onto the road from a Louisiana undertaker's business on Thursday afternoon. The images sent a shock wave throughout the community and the internet. We are going to try to figure out what caused this bizarre incident...

YouTube

So right off the bat, what comes to your mind when you think of the cause of blood leaking from a nearby funeral home? What could have possibly happened inside the cold walls, among the cadavers? For a lot of people, one thing comes to mind.

Legless Corpse

Well the scene is right for this to be the work of none other than The Tall Man, the murderous undertaker from the Phantasm series. He was an undertaker who sought fresh humans for his zombie army. He even had flying spheres that would bore into people and drain them of their blood.

Flipboard

If its blood someone, or something, is after, maybe it was this guy? The classic blood-fiend Count Dracula, could've stopped by for a fresh vial. Is it possible he tripped on his cape and spilled it all?

Wordpress

The first movie to ever show a pool of blood leaking from an unknown source, was this film, The Leopard Man. Master filmmaker Jacques Tourneur crafted a terrifying cinematic gem for the 1940s, which first depicted the now infamous stock use of a pool of blood gathering under a door way.

Pinterest

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Surely everyone has heard or seen the Owen Wilson Vince Vaughn hit comedy, The Wedding Crashers. No? (Wow, you're either really young or really old.) But the gist of it is…

YouTube

The two actors play divorce mediators who spend their free time crashing wedding receptions. For the irrepressible duo, there are few better ways to drink for free and bed vulnerable women.

IMDB

So when Secretary of the Treasury William Cleary (Christopher Walken) announces the wedding of his daughter, the pair make it their mission to crash the high-profile event.

IMDB

This has become a practice much better developed amongst weddings now. And extra caution has been implemented into the wedding planning process. But there's always been that one person that ruins everything,not just at weddings, but also at parties.

IMDB

However, not until now did I hear about someone who crashes funerals… I wish I were lying. In England, a serial funeral crasher has been blasted for turning up at services uninvited and tucking into food at the wakes afterwards.

IMDB

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These days, travel photographers jet around the world, trying to capture new angles on well-loved cities. There was a time, however, when photographs of urban centers around the world were a rarity.

Wikiimedia Commons

With the advent of photography in the 19th century, for the first time people were able to record the landscapes that surrounded them.

Wikiimedia Commons

When pioneering French photographer Louis Daguerre perfected the daguerreotype process, it passed into widespread use in the 1840s and 1850s. The method, which calls for printing images on a silvered copper plate, also called for long exposure times.

Wikipedia

Back then cities were eerily devoid of humans, except for the odd few who were still for a few minutes, to pose as a group, to sit on a step, to or have their shoes shined.

Wikiimedia Commons

Thus, these early images of international cities are landscapes, are also largely devoid of human presence. The few people that are present in the images would have posed for quite a long period in order to make an impression on the final image.

Wikiimedia Commons

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Remember the name Carl Moore the next time you ever encounter a bear. Remember that, in an attempt to save his dog Lacy from a bear that wandered onto his property, Carl Moore didn't run away from the bear -- he punched it. At least, he said he did. His friend Tyler said he "damn near corkscrewed his head."

YouTube

But please remember to not go around fighting bears just because Carl Moore said he did and won. There's a big difference between punching a bear to save your pet, and punching a bear just because you want to punch a bear -- the latter is just straight up animal abuse.

CNN

Use Carl's story as an inspiration to be fearless in life, not when it's about encountering a bear, because you're not Carl Moore, you can't punch like him, and you'll most likely get mauled by a bear.

Wikimedia

Carl Moore is not a guy who scares easily. CBS Sacramento interviewed him for the local story.

YouTube

He said:

"The man or beast that I run from ain't been born, and his momma's already dead."

Wikimedia

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The notion that a massive organization of the world's top artists, politicians, and other leaders control the way the entire world functions has captivated people for centuries.

Google Maps

In recent history, internet users have obsessed over the outlandish idea that everyone from Beyoncé to Kanye West are connected to the group that claims that through its guidance:

"The human species is allowed to function in their natural order while playing the part of gears in a machine for the betterment of the world."

Pinterest

Yes, the Illuminati's official website (or, so it claims to be) has a formal mission statement for the sole purpose of letting people know we're meaningless without them.

Pinterest

There was a time when even a casual reader was likely to be bombarded by all manner of Illuminati theories thanks to Hip Hop's seeming obsession with the subject. Outback Steakhouse probably wasn't ready for the internet to pounce Saturday.

Pinterest

The Illuminati. Pentagrams. The occult. Dan Brown's seminal novel The Da Vinci Code. Dan Brown's equally important novel introducing us to Harvard symbologist Robert Langdon, Angels and Demons. Dan Brown's genuinely uninspired and widely panned follow-up to The Da Vinci Code, The Lost Symbol. Steak. Australia. Australia steak.

Wikimedia

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